Classification of Monkeypox Images Based on Transfer Learning and the Al-Biruni Earth Radius Optimization Algorithm
Abdelaziz A Abdelhamid, El-Sayed M El-Kenawy, Nima Khodadadi, Seyedali Mirjalili, Doaa Sami Khafaga, Amal H Alharbi, Abdelhameed Ibrahim, Marwa M Eid, Mohamed Saber
02 October 2022
The world is still trying to recover from the devastation caused by the wide spread of COVID-19, and now the monkeypox virus threatens becoming a worldwide pandemic. Although the monkeypox virus is not as lethal or infectious as COVID-19, numerous countries report new cases daily. Thus, it is not surprising that necessary precautions have not been taken, and it will not be surprising if another worldwide pandemic occurs. Machine learning has recently shown tremendous promise in image-based diagnosis, including cancer detection, tumor cell identification, and COVID-19 patient detection. Therefore, a similar application may be implemented to diagnose monkeypox as it invades the human skin. An image can be acquired and utilized to further diagnose the condition. In this paper, two algorithms are proposed for improving the classification accuracy of monkeypox images. The proposed algorithms are based on transfer learning for feature extraction and meta-heuristic optimization for feature selection and optimization of the parameters of a multi-layer neural network. The GoogleNet deep network is adopted for feature extraction, and the utilized meta-heuristic optimization algorithms are the Al-Biruni Earth radius algorithm, the sine cosine algorithm, and the particle swarm optimization algorithm. Based on these algorithms, a new binary hybrid algorithm is proposed for feature selection, along with a new hybrid algorithm for optimizing the parameters of the neural network. To evaluate the proposed algorithms, a publicly available dataset is employed. The assessment of the proposed optimization of feature selection for monkeypox classification was performed in terms of ten evaluation criteria. In addition, a set of statistical tests was conducted to measure the effectiveness, significance, and robustness of the proposed algorithms. The results achieved confirm the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed methods compared to other optimization methods. The average classification accuracy was 98.8%.